Abdul assists clients with protection, use, and monetization of intellectual property.
David has almost 20 years’ experience in all aspects of complex litigation and case management in a variety of practice areas, including intellectual property, medical malpractice, professional malpractice, employment, and professional staff matters.
Nika Aldrich helps clients protect intellectual property in complex, highstakes litigations.
Yasmin Alleje is an American Bar Association certified paralegal with experience in patent prosecution and defense litigation.
Whether it is researching legal issues, drafting contracts, or providing clients with targeted advice, Thomas uses his legal acumen, creative approach, and experience in the healthcare industry to reach success with his clients.
Dave Anderson helps clients throughout Oregon’s diverse industries litigate business disputes and resolve succession issues.
Jamee Asher represents owners, managers, borrowers and lenders in commercial real estate transactions throughout the United States.
Al AuYeung provides intellectual property counsel that is deeply grounded in technology industry realities.
David Axelrod guides businesses and individuals in technology, healthcare and other sectors through litigation-driven challenges and opportunities with long-term implications for their business.
Jean Back brings more than 25 years of experience in helping manufacturers and technology-focused employers solve solutions to complicated employment scenarios.
Judith Baker’s concentration is in estate planning, probate and trust administration, and business law.
Dave Bartz helps transportation and construction businesses throughout the Pacific Northwest resolve disputes, gain approvals and keep projects moving forward.
Michael helps clients ranging from early and late stage startups, as well as mid-sized and Fortune 500 corporations to tackle issues with patents.
Zach Berne’s experience as a litigator includes representing clients in the maritime industry, in insurance coverage disputes and in environmental matters.
Stephanie Berntsen provides proactive, common-sense advice on employment issues for companies operating in the Pacific Northwest.
Cathy utilizes up-to-date technology to streamline complex litigation from discovery through trial.
Matt Bisturis helps companies and their owners navigate the legal challenges that come with establishing, growing, operating and eventually transitioning their businesses.
Steven Blair helps companies protect computer science innovations in the United States and overseas.
Eric Blank helps clients with intellectual property matters in computer and other electronics industries.
Carson Bowler deals with environmental challenges in both Oregon and Washington.
Blake's experience in mergers and acquisitions, commercial lending, securities offerings and corporate governance allows him to provide practical advice and find sophisticated solutions to complex issues.
Dave Boyajian is a licensed captain who speaks the same language as his maritime clients.
Rebecca Boyette helps clients in the healthcare and manufacturing and distribution industries navigate the bumpy road of employment law.
Karri Kuenzli Bradley brings an extensive scientific background to helping clients obtain patent rights in the United States and foreign jurisdictions.
Justin Brask helps clients navigate intellectual property challenges by providing them with a broad range of patent related services.
Arnold Brown has been a successful technology entrepreneur, in-house and outside counsel, and leader of technology standards-setting organizations.
Cindy Bryan helps manage and facilitate complex mass tort litigation, including pharmaceutical, asbestos, and pneumatic equipment cases.
Carmen Calzacorta helps public, private and family-owned businesses with their business and corporate needs, ranging from corporate governance, board and executive management, mergers, acquisitions and other transitions, to securities law compliance, corporate finance, manufacturing supply chain transactions and other transactions.
Jennifer Campbell leads a firm-wide team of attorneys focused on serving Washington and Oregon manufacturing, distribution and retail companies.
CaroLea Casas works with a variety of businesses throughout the Northwest to develop creative solutions to tough litigation challenges.
Julie Chapman supports attorneys in complex civil litigation cases, including condemnation, construction and commercial litigation.
Lisa Cincotta serves as Schwabe’s Chief Information Officer, with overall responsibility for guiding firm-wide technology initiatives and ensuring that they are client-focused.
Xavier Clark brings unique experience working at the intersection of legal issues and the technology industry.
Mike Cofield has helped technology businesses, including several innovative Fortune 500 companies in Silicon Forest, Silicon Valley, Seattle and other technology hubs across the nation, prepare and file both U.S. patent applications and Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications.
Mike Cohen specializes in brand management and protection.
Omar is passionate about business, the economy, and how these are impacted by state and federal regulatory structures.
Annyika (Nyika) Corbett works collaboratively with clients to find the most efficient ways to solve their employment issues.
Larry Costich is a real estate transactional attorney with a strong background in land use and natural resource law.
Sara is an experienced commercial litigator known for obtaining results in and out of the courtroom.
As Chief Executive Offer at Schwabe, I focus on keeping our clients at the center of all we do, leveraging my training as an engineer to deliver efficiencies to our clients and our processes, and bringing diversity of thought to a historically slow-changing industry.
Heather Cunningham helps property owners facing loss when a government entity with the power of eminent domain (also known as condemnation) seeks to acquire land or property rights.
Farron Curry is an experienced litigator who helps Schwabe’s clients prevail in and prevent business and employment-related disputes.
Kai Davies assists in the management of complex civil litigation, Federal Employers Liability Act and railroad injury claims, admiralty and maritime cases, and construction defect claims.
Janna Davydova advises timber investment management organizations (TIMOs), regional timber companies, and a variety of other private and nonprofit forestland owners and operators regarding acquisitions, dispositions and management of timberlands and mill sites.
Bob Dayton helps individuals, couples and business owners plan their estates and inter-generational transfers of assets and wealth, including all aspects of state and federal gift, estate and income tax planning.
As a born and raised Seattleite, Derrick De Vera understands and appreciates the Pacific Northwest economy and its drivers.
Alexandra DeFelice serves as the Industry Group Manager for two of the law firm’s six core industry groups—Manufacturing, Distribution and Retail (including the Food and Beverage and Outdoor and Athletic subgroups) and Natural Resources (including Agriculture and Timber/Forest Products).
Josh Dennis advises construction companies of all sizes through the many stages of the litigation process.
Ashley Donnell assists clients, inventors and attorneys in preparing and filing documents with the United States Patent Office.
Jim Dulcich is an experienced transactional attorney who represents clients on a wide variety of real estate and business transactions.
Ryan Dumm helps commercial, civil and residential construction companies assess risk, negotiate transactions and resolve disputes.
Dennis Dunphy helps businessowners threatened by the adverse impacts of eminent domain (condemnation) by government agencies.
Schwabe’s IP Litigation group leader Scott Eads has defended his clients’ key intellectual property rights in district courts across the United States for over 25 years.
David Ebel helps clients resolve disputes in securities, financial services and business matters.
Jeff Eden draws on his diverse civil litigation background to help clients resolve disputes, whether by means of negotiated agreements or contested hearings.
James Edwards represents small to mid-sized businesses in a variety of business matters.
Dan Eller assists clients with tax and business law issues in both transactions and controversies.
Frank Erisman assists the extractive industries in the location, exploration, development and production of minerals from public, private and Native lands.
John R. "Jack" Faust, Jr., now retired but available to us as a consultant, is an experienced appellate attorney and business litigator who remains highly regarded throughout Oregon.
Stacie Fellows provides attorneys and clients with comprehensive legal support in estate and trust administration, guardianships and conservatorships, and the preparation of estate tax and federal gift tax returns.
Audrea Fink is the Industry Group Manager for the Real Estate and Construction and Transportation, Ports and Maritime industry groups.
Brien Flanagan helps manufacturers, marine terminals and public ports obtain the permits, authorizations and financing they need to develop state-of-the-art facilities.
Colin Folawn helps clients resolve complex disputes, often involving the maritime and technology industries.
Michelle Folse assists clients with a broad spectrum of personnel and employment law matters.
Erin Forbes works closely with her clients to protect their intellectual property and innovations.
Steve Ford helps high-tech companies—from start-ups to the Fortune 500—protect their intellectual property assets throughout the United States and abroad.
Greg Fullem has earned a reputation for excellence, thoroughness and diplomacy in helping clients address complex natural resources and environmental issues.
Emily Fullerton focuses her practice on employment law, business and general litigation.
Employment Group co-leader Amanda Gamblin offers practical advice for the unique employment issues that arise in the construction and maritime industries.
Cindee Gannon is a paralegal working with the firm's business transaction, corporate finance and securities groups.
Michael Garone has over 35 years of experience in traditional labor, employment and appellate law, with a special emphasis in the law of arbitration.
Denise Gaskin is Schwabe’s Chief Operating Officer and a member of the Executive Committee.
Jill Gelineau represents property owners when a governmental entity seeks to take their property through eminent domain.
Mick Gillette served for 25 years on the Oregon Supreme Court before joining Schwabe.
Ryan focuses his practice in the areas of environmental law and construction law.
Cristy Gray has over 25 years of experience in litigation involving product liability, personal injury, insurance defense, antitrust, securities, construction law, appeals, workers' compensation, medical malpractice, alcohol regulatory, ERISA and labor and employment law.
Walter Grebe is a retired shareholder who served as Schwabe’s Principal Executive Officer for eight years.
Troy Greenfield brings a unique perspective and skill set to his clients’ business deals.
Thomas Griffin represents individuals and businesses, large and small, in overcoming environmental regulatory issues, forming and operating business entities, and completing real estate transactions, including timberlands.
Ian Griswold, a registered U.S. patent attorney, helps businesses, institutions and organizations translate their ideas into assets.
Gretchen Guinasso is a senior paralegal with more than 25 years of experience in complex civil litigation.
John Guinasso represents real estate owners, managers and tenants.
Kelly Hagan has practiced on the cutting edge of healthcare innovation for more than 25 years.
For over 28 years, Joanne has assisted attorneys in probate and trust administration and with the preparation and filing of estate and gift tax returns. She has worked for firms in California, Oregon and Washington.
Tracy is a paralegal in Schwabe’s estate planning and tax group.
Kelly Hamilton is a litigation paralegal with over 20 years of experience in the legal field.
Kurt Hansen represents physicians, hospitals and other providers in mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures.
For more than 30 years, Dick Hansen has been helping businesses, from Fortune 100 companies to small local manufacturing companies, successfully remove themselves from controversies and lawsuits through pre-filing resolution, settlement mediation, arbitration or jury trial.
Angie Hanslovan focuses her work on condemnation and real property litigation.
Darius Hartwell represents a broad spectrum of clients in debt and equity finance, mergers and acquisitions, and general corporate law.
Since coming to Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt in 1972, Terry Hauck has focused his practice in the area of real estate law.
Anna Helton helps businesses efficiently and effectively resolve commercial disputes.
Brandi Henley has extensive knowledge and background in patent docketing as well as obtaining foreign filing licenses.
Molly Henry represents vessel owners and operators of all sizes, from fishing boats, to tugs and barges, to deep draught vessels.
As the firm’s practice group leader for the real estate group, Dave Hepler helps clients purchase, sell, lease and finance real property throughout Oregon, Washington and the rest of the country.
Michael Herbst protects the interests of privately held businesses in complex corporate and commercial transactions.
Jeff Hern assists companies in the manufacturing, food and beverage, and natural resources industries in litigation and regulatory matters.
For the past 40 years, Peter Heuser has been focusing his practice in the areas of patent prosecution and litigation of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret matters in federal and state court and in the International Trade Commission.
Joe Hobson has been practicing business and organization law, helping design and develop small business and public and private institutions and associations for 40 years.
Margaret Hoffmann works primarily in the drug and medical device arena, assisting pharmaceutical companies in mass tort litigation as well as lawsuits filed within the state of Oregon.
As leader of Schwabe’s Real Estate and Construction industry group and as a Shareholder in the firm's Litigation Department, Stephanie Holmberg helps owners, developers, contractors and design professionals resolve disputes at the administrative level and in state and federal courts.
Gigi Hoover has worked in the intellectual property field since 2000, assisting attorneys with all aspects of U.S. and foreign patent prosecution.
Sally Houk has worked at Schwabe since 1982, and joined the patent group in 2002.
Chris Howard is a strategically minded litigator who can and will take the appropriate case to trial.
Elizabeth Howard helps agriculture, forest product and energy businesses navigate burdensome regulations, negotiate favorable resolutions with agencies, defend against injunctions and cancellations, resolve enforcement actions and obtain permits.
Aukjen (pronounced “owk-yen”) is an experienced litigator and trial lawyer with more than 13 years of experience in administrative, state, federal, and appellate courts.
MaryAnne Ivie is a registered paralegal with over 30 years of experience.
Noah Jarrett advises and advocates for maritime, railroad and construction companies across Oregon and Washington.
Juan Jasso is an attorney in Schwabe’s business and corporate practice. He represents entrepreneurs and established businesses, and partners with them to implement solution-oriented strategies.
Kirk Johansen devotes the majority of his law practice to clients in the forest products industry.
Sandy Johnson helps clients navigate state and federal health care law as applied in transactional, operational, compliance, and other matters.
Bob Joseph joined Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt in 1965. Since that time, he has developed a national reputation for his knowledge and understanding of insurance regulations, particularly the generation and application of rates and forms.
Katie Kelly has experience representing clients in a wide variety of litigation matters, including torts, contract disputes, federal investigations and arbitration proceedings.
Kevin Kerstiens is a tax lawyer with a broad range of experience in his 35 years of practice.
Clients facing high-stakes appellate litigation turn to Sara Kobak for experienced representation and compelling advocacy.
Don Krahmer, Jr. is a trusted advisor to many of the Pacific Northwest’s leading companies, executives, entrepreneurs and investors.
Manufacturers, retailers and property owners in the Pacific Northwest rely on Allison Krashan to help them successfully defend injury and damage claims.
Heather Kulin has nearly two decades of experience helping clients obtain and maintain intellectual protection.
Aaron Laing helps property owners, developers and investors navigate Washington’s increasingly complex land use regulatory framework.
Shonee Langford helps his clients navigate Oregon and Washington water laws.
Enoy Lawless-Lewerenz is a patent prosecution paralegal with Schwabe's Intellectual Property (IP) practice group.
Sarah Lawson works with tribal governments and tribal entities to achieve self-governance and economic development goals while protecting tribal resources and sovereignty.
Aileen Lee is a patent prosecution paralegal in the Intellectual Property group.
Andy Lee helps businesses and nonprofits navigate the dangers posed by Oregon law and unfriendly venues.
Brenna Legaard, a registered patent attorney, helps established and emerging technology companies in the medical, software, high-tech manufacturing and sporting goods industries create holistic intellectual property strategies that support long-term business goals.
Philip Lempriere’s legal experience coupled with his time serving as both a deck cadet and third officer aboard U.S. ships uniquely positions him to understand clients’ admiralty and maritime legal issues.
Tia Lewis has over 22 years of experience assisting clients throughout Central Oregon in the areas of real estate, land use, permitting and due diligence.
Trevor Livingston counsels clients in a wide variety of commercial and finance transactions, including debt and equity securities offerings, asset sales and purchases, and mergers and acquisitions.
Darien Loiselle leads a comprehensive construction practice for Schwabe’s Construction and Design Group.
Mark Long helps public, private and non-profit companies make sound decisions on the governance, structure and finance issues that drive their futures.
Amanda Loupin-Bartlett provides practical business advice to companies of all sizes and stages, ranging from start-ups and local family-owned businesses to large multinational corporations.
Lisa Lowe is committed to delivering value in all aspects of her diverse practice, which serves both ports and estate planning clients.
Deric has conducted case investigations for numerous different industry clients spanning the seven Western United States over his 32 year career at Schwabe
Samantha helps individual clients with estate planning, probate and trust administration.
Bradley Maier is an international business and compliance attorney who helps clients make sense of constantly changing U.S. immigration and customs laws.
Nate Maki works closely with technology companies to develop and execute global patent strategies that maximize protection of valuable intellectual assets.
Over the course of his career, Mark Manulik has represented developers, owners, investors and lenders with respect to virtually every aspect of commercial real estate practice.
Bert Markovich has defended his clients in more than 100 trials through verdict, obtaining favorable results in over 90%.
Connie Sue Martin helps Indian tribes, ports, companies of all sizes and individuals address environmental contamination and restore injured natural resources.
Lindsey McReynolds is responsible for keeping clients at the center of all the firm does.
Wally Miller helps employers ensure that their retirement and welfare benefit plans comply with applicable state and federal laws.
Alison Moss helps private residential and commercial developers, contractors, local governments, ports and individuals navigate complex land use and dispute resolution issues throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Brian Nakashima knows how to keep financial services firms running smoothly and efficiently—ensuring that costs stay low and service levels high.
Virginia was raised on a cattle ranch near Crater Lake National Park and understands both the challenges facing agriculture ventures, and the value of common sense in addressing them.
Bill Ohle brings a strong industry background to representing public utilities and industries in state and federal regulatory matters.
Thomas Olson helps a range of clients, from manufacturers to towboat operators to family-owned businesses, effectively navigate issues they encounter in daily operations.
Rosa Ostrom counsels clients of all sizes through the many stages of the litigation process, focusing on issues of product liability, manufacturing, and bankruptcy.
Martha Pagel knows water – from the inside out. With her unique background as a former director of both the Oregon Water Resources Department and Department of State Lands, she brings first-hand experience and insight into dealing with water and natural resources regulation.
Joel Parker has a well-earned reputation for excellence in helping clients resolve disputes related to real estate and natural resources.
Wes Parker helps clients patent inventions and manage intellectual property assets.
Jeff Patterson assists client with estate planning, charitable planning, business and real estate transactions, probate and trust administration.
Christine Pavlyk has been working in the intellectual property field for over 20 years.
Tom Payne works with clients on an array of employment, labor and benefits issues. Prior to joining Schwabe, he was a law clerk for Magistrate Judge John V. Acosta in the U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon.
Allison Pentheny assists clients in the areas of U.S. and foreign trademark and copyright prosecution and enforcement, IP due diligence for mergers and acquisitions, and domain name and website issues.
Anthony Phillips assists with trademark matters both international and domestic, including clearance, prosecution and maintenance.
Alex Poust has over 20 years of experience representing lenders, secured and unsecured creditors, debtors, receivers and other stakeholders in all aspects of corporate insolvency and restructuring.
Steven Prewitt guides companies and research institutions through the technology development, protection, commercialization and enforcement life cycle to maximize the value of their intellectual property.
Lisa Puccinelli is a patent paralegal in Schwabe’s Intellectual Property practice group, where she assists with U.S. and foreign patent prosecution.
Vladimir Raskin focuses his practice in the area of intellectual property.
Reg Ratliff’s legal practice focuses on counseling clients in matters related to patents and representing clients before the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Bert Ray helps clients navigate the myriad of issues facing the transportation, ports and maritime industry. His diverse legal background and commitment to understanding the intricacies of his clients’ needs results in a multifaceted approach to translating problems into workable solutions.
Larry Ream guides his clients through the complex process of Chapter 11 bankruptcies, receiverships, foreclosures and creditor workouts.
Milt Reimers helps clients navigate a broad array of real estate and land use matters, including acquisition, permitting/entitlement, development, leasing and dispute resolution.
Dawn Rhoads has worked exclusively in intellectual property since 1999, with an emphasis on patent prosecution.
Kent Roberts helps maritime and transportation businesses in the Pacific Northwest structure transactions, resolve disputes and control risks for successful projects.
Russ focuses on assisting privately held businesses and entrepreneurs with their business and transactional needs, including advising on real estate acquisitions, dispositions, and financings; mergers and acquisitions; and a wide range of commercial agreements and strategic partnerships.
Mike Robinson represents home builders, hospitals, office developers and municipalities.
Estiven Rojo helps clients throughout the United States and abroad maximize the value of their intellectual property.
Since 1997, Craig Russillo has been helping clients resolve complex commercial disputes, particularly with respect to borrowing, lending and real estate.
Don Russo works with private parties and public entities on the purchase and sale of both commercial and industrial real estate property.
Cory Sabin is a paralegal with Schwabe’s Environmental practice group. He focuses on complex environment and natural resources research and analysis, as well as assisting attorneys with all stages of litigation.
K.C. Safley assists clients throughout Oregon with their transactional real estate needs.
Lynn Scardina assists attorneys in preparing and filing documents with the United States Patent Office.
Lisa Schaures guides businesses, social ventures and nonprofits in the Pacific Northwest through everyday general counsel matters, quandaries and major life cycle events.
Elizabeth Schleuning helps clients comply with the ever-changing laws governing employment and defends them vigorously at trial when needed.
Maria has been practicing in the areas of Estate Planning and Administration since 2007.
Jessie Schuh serves clients ranging from individuals and closely held businesses to national financial institutions.
Marc Sellers helps clients resolve “make or break” civil and criminal tax issues in state and federal courts.
Kathy has over 30 years of experience supporting all aspects of litigation, from inception through trial, mediation and arbitration.
Charmin Shiely works with prominent businesses in a number of industries, including real estate development, seniors housing and maritime.
Kainui Smith strives to provide comprehensive and client-centric legal services to real estate and construction companies from the inception of a project, and if necessary, through litigation.
Larry Smith serves as Schwabe’s lobbyist in Washington, D.C., assisting clients with issues before the U. S. Congress and federal agencies.
Loren Snow represents clients in a broad variety of real estate transactions, including acquisitions, dispositions, financings, joint ventures and leases.
Alee Soleimanpour helps clients navigate complicated tax issues on the federal, state, and local level.
Paige Spratt combines real world construction experience with legal know-how to help contractors find practical solutions to complex problems.
Jon Stamm has a diverse background of experience representing commercial clients in litigation and arbitration and individuals and entities in matters related to fraud and government investigations.
Alex Starkovich is a registered patent attorney with eight years of prior engineering experience.
Mark Stayer represents timber investment management organizations and commercial real estate companies in large, complex acquisitions, dispositions, conservation sales and easements, and loan transactions secured by timberlands.
Garrett focuses his practice on obtaining entitlements and permit approvals for a wide variety of land development projects in both urban and rural settings.
Joe Straus started practicing construction law in 1982, when he did not know the difference between a BOMAG roller and a boring log.
A computer engineer by training, Ryan Strauss understands the sophisticated intellectual property he protects for his clients.
Stephen Sullivan brings extensive intellectual property law experience and deep technological knowledge to aid clients in building patent portfolios that support their overall business goals.
Bazsi Takacs’s clients range from multi-billion-dollar corporations to entrepreneurial companies and span a range of industries, including outdoor and athletics, food and beverage, and emerging technologies.
Anne defends her clients’ most valuable assets: the reputation of their products and services.
Lance Termes’s experience as an in-house patent counsel gives him the client’s perspective on service and communication.
Lindsay Thane helps individuals and businesses of all sizes throughout the Northwest resolve disputes through strategic and substantive counsel on water rights and public lands issues.
Yvonne Tingleaf brings both legal experience and a client-side perspective to advising on intellectual property protection and Internet matters.
As a fifth-generation Oregon attorney, Tom is deeply invested in his clients and their role in the community.
Shawn advises local and national real estate and construction companies in all phases of litigation.
Tom Triplett has over 50 years of experience providing proactive advice to—and, where necessary, litigating—labor, employment and antitrust matters.
Sheri Villarreal is a patent prosecution paralegal with Schwabe’s Intellectual Property (IP) practice group.
Cristin Wagner helps innovative companies protect and develop their intellectual property portfolios.
Principally serving the energy, utility and transportation industries as well as public ports, Jay Waldron represents a diverse client base in environmental and energy law and litigation.
Kelly Walsh helps property owners defend themselves against the government in eminent domain (also known as condemnation) cases.
Keyi (Kuh-Yee) Wang provides legal advice to manufacturers and real estate and energy companies on regulatory and compliance issues under federal and state statutes to help resolve litigation disputes.
Yuke Wang prepares and prosecutes patent applications, performs research and patentability analysis, prepares patent infringement opinion letters, re-examines patents and provides patent litigation support.
Jonathan Ward helps companies and individuals in the technology sector secure valuable IP rights for their innovations.
Derek has 20 years of intellectual property experience.
Katherine Wax represents owners, developers, property managers, and tenants in real estate transactions, including purchases, sales, leases, and ground leases.
With a background working as Assistant Public Defender and later as a consultant in the corporate world, John approaches each client’s legal issue with the heart of an advocate and the mind of a businessman.
An in-house land use planner with more than 25 years of experience, Cathy White brings an added dimension to Schwabe’s Real Estate and Construction services.
For over 40 years, Joe Willis has helped people who own property that the government wants to take for public projects. He has handled well over 1,000 cases, trying many of them to juries and judges in state and federal courts with stellar results.
Knowledgeable, energetic and compassionate, Jennifer Woodhouse assists clients with estate, charitable and business transition planning, probate, trust administration, and tax controversies.
Jason Wrubleski focuses his practice on commercial patent, copyright and trademark litigation.
Steve focuses his intellectual property practice on software and Internet patents.
Linda Zachariah drafts and negotiates technology licensing and software-as-a-service (SaaS) agreements, and also handles data and privacy matters.
Penny Zhang specializes in electronics, hardware, software, applied physics, semiconductors, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and optical systems.